The numbers * i*,

**Π**&

*are special, with*

**e***being special in an awkward way.*

**i**Since it can be shown that * i*² equals both 1 and -1, a contradiction that is swept under the carpet for fear of a reprisel from the universe.

Recall that * i* is useful notation for shortening the written representation of imaginary numbers, it is defined as √-1.

Since * i*² = (√-1)² = √-1 × √-1 = √(-1 ×-1) = 1

But,

… * i*² is (√-1)² and because squaring a root ( i.e (√A)² = A ) effectively cancels the operation out … we end up with -1.

A which point there’s usually a bit of shoulder shrugging and scuffling away.